CONTRACT LAW is that body of law which regulates the enforcement of contracts. Contract law has its origins thousands of years ago as the early civilizations began to trade with each other, a legal system was created to support and to facilitate that trade. The English and French developed similar contract law systems, both referring extensively to old Roman contract law principles such as consensus ad idem or caveat emptor. There are some minor differences on points of detail such as the English law requirement that every contract contain consideration. More and more states are changing their laws to eliminate consideration as a prerequisite to a valid contract thus contributing to the uniformity of law. Contract law is the basis of all commercial dealings from buying a bus ticket to trading on the stock market.
LIQUIDITY is a. a companys ability to meet current obligations with cash or other assets that can be quickly converted to cash; b. in securities, it is the ease with which an instrument can be bought or sold at or near prevailing market prices in the secondary market (often reflected by the range of the bid-asked spread).
SUBORDINATED DEBENTURE, in securities, is a debt issue whose claim on assets is subordinated to that of general creditors in the event of a liquidation, as stated in the bond indenture.
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