CONTRIBUTION MARGIN ANALYSIS is a technique used in brand marketing and product management to help a company decide what product(s) to add to its product portfolio. The manager asks what will happen to profits if a new product is added or an existing product is discontinued. Calculations take into account additional revenues, additional costs, effects on other products in the portfolio (referred to as cannibalization), and competitors reactions.
PLACEMENT is bank depositing Eurodollars with (selling Eurodollars to) another bank is said to be making a placement.
RETAINED EARNINGS are profits of the business that have not been paid out to the owners as of the balance sheet date. The earnings have been "retained" for use in the business (Retained Earnings is an account in the equity section of the balance sheet). It is comprised of the balance, either debit or credit, of appropriated or unappropriated earnings of an entity that are retained in the business. A good rate of growth in retained earnings is an indicator that the firm enjoys a sustainable competitive advantage. NOTE: Appropriated earnings are not available for dividends, but may be used to reduce a deficit or may be transferred to stated capital. Other appropriations of profits require a vote of the shareholders.
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