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CONTRIBUTION/SALES RATIO (C/S RATIO) is a tool used in profit management. It is important to establish the C/S RATIO: C/S ratio = (Sales revenue - Variable cost of sales)/Sales revenue x 100. If a company achieves a high average marginal profit ratio of say, 40%, it does not mean that it will achieve high profits. The eventual profit will be dependent on the level of fixed costs within the organization.

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BOND RATING is a measure of credit quality ranging from AAA to D by bond rating services such as Moody's, Standard & Poor's or Fitch's. Bonds rated BB+ or lower by Standard & Poor's or Ba1 or lower by Moody's are not investment grade.

SERVICE CHARGE ACCOUNTING, in property management, is estate and property service charge accounting system that provides the mechanism for comprehensive service charge reconciliation reports for both the tenant and the property manager. Expenditure can be apportioned equally over the entire service charge period or can be allocated to a specific date range within the period. Full budget reporting and next period budget calculation routines are usually provided.

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