CONVERTIBLE BOND is a bond that can be converted to other securities under certain conditions.
AVAL is a term meaning inseparable from the financial instrument. This gives a guarantee and is abstracted from the performance of the underlying trade contract: Article 31 of the 1930 Geneva Convention of the Bills Of Exchange states that the aval can be written on the bill itself or on an allonge. US Banks are prohibited from avalizing drafts.
ADVANCE is an amount paid before it is earned, e.g. payment ahead of actual expenditures or phase completion of a construction project.
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