CONVEXITY is the price change that occurs for a bond not accounted for or predicted by modified dU1"ation. Convexity explains why price change estimates using modified duration increase in error as the yield changes, generally by more than 100 basis points. Bonds with positive (negative) convexity have increased (decreased) duration as interest rates fall (rise). Bonds with positive convexity, such as those with put options, have returns higher than those predicted by duration alone. Mortgage-backed securities and callable bonds generally have negative convexity, which means that the price increase predicted by duration for a steep rate decline is too high.
SUBVENTION is the provision of assistance or financial support such as an endowment or a subsidy from a government or foundation.
TOTAL ASSET TURNOVER measures managements efficiency in managing all of a firm's assets - specifically the generation of revenues from the firms total investments in assets. This ratio is extremely important in high asset firms such as manufactures and telecommunications companies. Generally, the higher this ratio as compared to like companies or the industry (Formula: Net Revenue / Total Assets):
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