COST ASSIGNMENT involves assigning costs of an account to the accounts that are responsible or accountable for incurring the cost. For example, the cost of issuing purchase orders is allocated to the various objects procured. The cost assignment is done through assignment paths and cost drivers. The assignment path identifies the source account (the account whose cost is being assigned "Issue Purchase Orders" in the above example) and destination accounts (the accounts to which the costs are being allocated the various cost objects procured by issuing purchase orders in the above example). The cost driver identifies the measure or rationale on the basis of which the assignment needs to be done, that is, whether the costs of issuing purchase orders need to be assigned to various cost objects evenly, based on some defined percentage values, or based on some criterion, like the number of purchase orders of each cost object issued. Defining the cost drivers and assignment paths (i.e., source and destination accounts) enable proper assignment and accounting of the various costs incurred in the organization.
PERPETUAL is a fixed income security with no maturity date, such as a preferred stock with no sinking fund.
PUTABLE BOND is a bond that contains a provision that allows the holder, or investor, a put option to tender the bond prior to maturity, generally at par. Normally a holding period, often several years, must occur before the put option may be exercised. However, the holder has flexibility, in the event interest rates go up, to tender this bond long before its normal maturity.
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