COST ASSIGNMENT involves assigning costs of an account to the accounts that are responsible or accountable for incurring the cost. For example, the cost of issuing purchase orders is allocated to the various objects procured. The cost assignment is done through assignment paths and cost drivers. The assignment path identifies the source account (the account whose cost is being assigned "Issue Purchase Orders" in the above example) and destination accounts (the accounts to which the costs are being allocated the various cost objects procured by issuing purchase orders in the above example). The cost driver identifies the measure or rationale on the basis of which the assignment needs to be done, that is, whether the costs of issuing purchase orders need to be assigned to various cost objects evenly, based on some defined percentage values, or based on some criterion, like the number of purchase orders of each cost object issued. Defining the cost drivers and assignment paths (i.e., source and destination accounts) enable proper assignment and accounting of the various costs incurred in the organization.
EARNED SURPLUS see RETAINED EARNINGS.
ROLL FORWARD, in accounting, it is the systematic establishment of a new accounting periods balances by using (rolling forward) prior accounting period data. There are two approaches: 1. Roll forward both asset and liabilities on a consistent basis from a consistent earlier date (possibly the last annual review) or, take the most up to date asset and liability figures as the starting point (which may be at different dates) to produce roll forward estimates of assets and liabilities; in securities, it is when an investor replaces an old options position with a new one having a later expiration date (and same strike price).
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