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COST OF EQUITY (COE) is the minimum rate of return a firm must offer owners to compensate for waiting for their returns, and for bearing risk. It is calculated: COE = Dividends per Share (for next year) / Current Market Value of Stock + Growth Rate of Dividends.

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PROVISION FOR CREDIT LOSSES, in lending institutions, is a charge to income which represents an expense deemed adequate by management given the composition of a bank's credit portfolios, their probability of default, the economic environment and the allowance for credit losses already established. Specific provisions are established to reduce the book value of specific assets (primarily loans) to establish the amount expected to be recovered on the loans. See also PROVISION.

PAR VALUE is a. the maturity value or face value, i.e., the amount that an issuer agrees to pay at the maturity date; b. the official exchange rate between two countries currencies; or, c. the value of a security that is set by the company issuing it; unrelated to market value.

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