COST REDUCTION is actions taken in the present designed to decrease costs in the present. See COST AVOIDANCE.
GROSS DEBT, generally, is the sum total of an entities debt obligations. In corporate finance, it is usually comprised of debt financing, irrespective of its maturity, i.e. medium and long-term (various borrowings due in more than one year that have not yet been repaid) and short-term bank or financial borrowings (portion of long-term borrowings due in less than one year, discounted notes (same technique as discounting of bills of exchange), bank overdrafts, etc.).
DOUBLE-ENTRY ACCOUNTING is a system of recording transactions in a way that maintains the equality of the accounting equation. The accounting technique records each transaction as both a credit and a debit. Double-entry bookkeeping (DEB) or accounting was developed during the fifteenth century and was first recorded in 1494 as a system by the Italian mathematician Luca Pacioli.
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