COST-VOLUME-PROFIT ANALYSIS (CVPA) examines the behavior of total revenue, total costs and profit as changes occur in the output level, selling price and variable costs per unit or fixed costs.
OPERATING EXPENSE TO SALES reports the operating expenses as a percent of Net Revenues. This then is a measure of the total overhead employed in the firm per Net Sales Revenue Dollar; thereby giving an indication of the efficiency of the cost structure of the company. It gives an indication of the ability of a business to convert income into profit. Generally, businesses with low ratios will generate more profit than others. In general business operations with larger and more stable cash flows can sustain higher ratios than smaller and less stable operations. Scale and income stability are important considerations though it is up to the management of a business to monitor costs in an appropriate manner whatever its size. Formula: Total Overhead Cash Expense / Net Revenues
BANK GUARANTEE is an irrevocable commitment by a bank to pay a specified sum of money in the event that the party requesting the guarantee fails to perform the promise or discharge the liability to a third person in case of the requestors default.
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