COVENANT Definition

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COVENANT is a clause in a contract that requires one party to do, or refrain from doing, certain things. It is usually a restriction on a borrower imposed by a lender.

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VISUAL-FIT METHOD is a cost estimation method where an analyst examines a cost by plotting points on a graph (called a scatter diagram) and places a line through the points to yield a cost function. This method is more objective than the account-classification method, but it is still lacking because two cost analysts could (and likely would) visually fit different lines. Such an approach is useful, though, because it helps spot non-representative data points, or outliers.

CONTRA ACCOUNT is a. the reduction to the gross cost of an asset to arrive at the net cost; also known as a valuation allowance; e.g., accumulated depreciation is a contra account to the original cost of a fixed asset to arrive at the book value; or, b. reduction of a liability to arrive at its carrying value; e.g., bond discount, which is a reduction of bonds payable.

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