CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATE is when a company must make assumptions about matters that are "highly uncertain" when the company makes the accounting estimate and either of the following conditions would have a material effect on the company's financial condition, changes in financial condition or results of operations: 1. the company could reasonably have used a different estimate for the current period; or, 2.changes in the estimate are reasonably likely to occur from period to period in the future.
CONVERTIBLE DEBENTURE is any type of debenture that can be converted into some other security, e.g. conversion of a convertible bond into stock.
ALTMAN Z-SCORE reliably predicts whether or not a company is likely to enter into bankruptcy within one or two years: If the Z-Score is 3.0 or above - bankruptcy is not likely. If the Z-Score is 1.8 or less - bankruptcy is likely.A Z-Score between 1.8 and 3.0 is the gray area, i.e., a high degree of caution should be used. Probabilities of bankruptcy within the above ranges are 95% for one year and 70% within two years. A Z-Score between the two is the gray area. Obviously a higher Z-Score is desirable. It is best to assess each individual companys Z-Score against that of the industry. In low margin industries it is possible for Z-Scores to fall below the above. In such cases a trend comparison to the industry over consecutive time periods may be a better indicator. It should be remembered that a Z-Score is only as valid as the data from which it was derived i.e. if a company has altered or falsified their financial records/books, a Z-Score derived from those "cooked books" is of lesser use.
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