CROSS-ACCOUNTING is non-cash payment through the delivery of goods or services to satisfy a liability; a very common practice between subsidiaries of a company. See IN-KIND.
EQUITY ACCOUNTING is the practice of showing in a companys accounts the share of undistributed profits of another company in which it holds equity ownership (usually below 50%). The share of profit shown is usually equal to its share of the equity in the other company. The profit may not actually be paid over, but the equity holding company has a right to this share of the undistributed profit.
RETAINED EARNINGS are profits of the business that have not been paid out to the owners as of the balance sheet date. The earnings have been "retained" for use in the business (Retained Earnings is an account in the equity section of the balance sheet). It is comprised of the balance, either debit or credit, of appropriated or unappropriated earnings of an entity that are retained in the business. A good rate of growth in retained earnings is an indicator that the firm enjoys a sustainable competitive advantage. NOTE: Appropriated earnings are not available for dividends, but may be used to reduce a deficit or may be transferred to stated capital. Other appropriations of profits require a vote of the shareholders.
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