CURRENCY SWAP Definition

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CURRENCY SWAP is an exchange of two currencies accord­ing to an agreement to re-exchange the currencies at the same rate at a specified future date. During the term of the agreement, exchanges of interest payments denomi­nated in the respective currencies also may occur.

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GOODWILL is that intangible possession which enables a business to continue to earn a profit that is in excess of the normal or basic rate of profit earned by other businesses of similar type. The goodwill of a business may be due to a particularly favorable location, its reputation in the community, or the quality of its employer and employees. The evidence that goodwill exists is the proven ability to earn excess profits. Goodwill is created on the books of a newly purchased company to the extent that the purchase price of the company is greater than the value of its net tangible assets. There are a number of methods for valuing goodwill: a. Simple Capitalization - The net profit of the business is capitalized to determine the total value of the business. The value of all the tangible assets is subtracted from the total value to establish the value of the intangible assets, or goodwill. b. Excess Earnings - the amount of earnings that are in excess of those normally earned by a similar business are capitalized to determine the value of goodwill. c. Income Tax Method - The past five years net income is averaged and a reasonable expected rate of return for tangible assets and salary requirements are subtracted. The resulting value is then capitalized to arrive at the goodwill value. d. Market Value - The price a willing seller would accept and a willing buyer would pay for goodwill. e. Buy /Sell Agreement - The value of goodwill is established by a formula in the buy/ sell agreement. f. Rule of Thumb - Goodwill is worth one years gross income.

A firm that shows increasing goodwill over a multi-year period likely has a sustainable competitive advantage.

FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT (1977) is a United States federal law that is primarily known for its two main provisions: one that deals with accounting transparency requirements of issuers required to report under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and one that deals with bribery of foreign officials.

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