CURRENT RATIO, a comparison of current assets to current liabilities, is a commonly used measure of short-run solvency, i.e., the immediate ability of a firm to pay its current debts as they come due. Current Ratio is particularly important to a company thinking of borrowing money or getting credit from their suppliers. Potential creditors use this ratio to measure a companys liquidity or ability to pay off short-term debts. Though acceptable ratios may vary from industry to industry below 1.00 is not atypical for high quality companies with easy access to capital markets to finance unexpected cash requirements. Smaller companies, however, should have higher current ratios to meet unexpected cash requirements. The rule of thumb Current Ratio for small companies is 2:1, indicating the need for a level of safety in the ability to cover unforeseen cash needs from current assets. Current Ratio is best compared to the industry. Formula: Current Assets / Current Liabilities
BOND RATING is a measure of credit quality ranging from AAA to D by bond rating services such as Moody's, Standard & Poor's or Fitch's. Bonds rated BB+ or lower by Standard & Poor's or Ba1 or lower by Moody's are not investment grade.
DIRECT JOURNAL PAYMENT is a payment that is recognized that is not included in the Accounts Receivable ledger, e.g. a double payment on a mortgage that has a monthly payment due and payable will cause a split-payment posting: one in the Accounts Receivable ledger for one half of the payment (principal and interest that is invoiced), with the other half of the payment being posted to the Long Term Loan ledger as a direct journal payment.
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