DEBT RATIO measures the percent of total funds provided by creditors. Debt includes both current liabilities and long-term debt. Creditors prefer low debt ratios because the lower the ratio, the greater the cushion against creditors losses in liquidation. Owners may seek high debt ratios, either to magnify earnings or because selling new stock would mean giving up control. Owners want control while "using someone elses money." Debt Ratio is best compared to industry data to determine if a company is possibly over or under leveraged. The right level of debt for a business depends on many factors. Some advantages of higher debt levels are:
Some disadvantages can be:
Formula: Total Liabilities / (Total Liabilities + Stockholders Equity)
CONSTRUCT OF UTILITY THEORY is a scientific calculation that has an underlying concept of utility in that it is used to rank a series of alternatives and, in the case of a simple choice, identify the single alternative, which has higher utility, or out ranks, all other alternatives. The primary implication of this ranking or ordering of alternatives is that there is no absolute reference, zero point, for utility values. Thus, the only valuation that is important is the difference in utility between pairs of alternatives; particularly whether that difference is positive or negative. Any function that produces the same preference orderings can serve as a utility function and will give the same predictions of choice, regardless of the numerical values of the utilities assigned to individual alternatives. It also follows that utility functions, which result in the same order among alternatives, are equivalent.
BALANCE FORWARD ACCOUNTING is where you maintain a list of charges and payments for each account. To find out the balance at any point in time, you add the charges, add the payments, and then subtract total payments from total charges. A billing statement is sent out every month with any balance carried forward from the previous statement
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