DEPRECIATION is the amount of expense charged against earnings by a company to write off the cost of a plant or machine over its useful live, giving consideration to wear and tear, obsolescence, and salvage value. If the expense is assumed to be incurred in equal amounts in each business period over the life of the asset, the depreciation method used is straight line (SL). If the expense is assumed to be incurred in decreasing amounts in each business period over the life of the asset, the method used is said to be accelerated. Two commonly used variations of the accelerated method of depreciating an asset are the sum-of-years digits (SYD) and the double-declining balance (DDB) methods. Frequently, accelerated depreciation is chosen for a business tax expense but straight line is chosen for its financial reporting purposes.
BILL OF MATERIALS (BOM) is a listing of all the assemblies, sub-assemblies, parts, and raw materials that are needed to produce one unit of a finished product. Each finished product has its own bill of materials.
UNDER-BILLING is not recovering the full value of the agreed upon price or not billing for the correct amount of services or goods provided (usually unintentional).
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