DEVIATION is the departure from prescribed internal control. Often expressed as a rate at which the departure occurs.
RETAINED EARNINGS are profits of the business that have not been paid out to the owners as of the balance sheet date. The earnings have been "retained" for use in the business (Retained Earnings is an account in the equity section of the balance sheet). It is comprised of the balance, either debit or credit, of appropriated or unappropriated earnings of an entity that are retained in the business. A good rate of growth in retained earnings is an indicator that the firm enjoys a sustainable competitive advantage. NOTE: Appropriated earnings are not available for dividends, but may be used to reduce a deficit or may be transferred to stated capital. Other appropriations of profits require a vote of the shareholders.
NONREFUNDABLE BOND is a bond issue that cannot be redeemed for a stated period of time using the proceeds from a new, lower-cost issue to finance the refunding. The bond can still be called without a refunding, but the company must use internal capital or equity funds to retire the issue. This provides some protection to the bondholder if interest rates decline significantly.
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