DIRECT ATTRIBUTION is the most precise method of costing an output. It seeks to capture accurately the volume and cost of resources used by particular activities. This can be expensive unless the information is already available because it requires detailed measurement of actual costs. Such direct measurement is seldom justifiable solely to improve the accuracy of a cost system, but many institutions use this method to obtain efficiency gains and cost savings.
ABSORPTION PRICING is where all costs, both fixed and variable; plus a percentage mark-up for profit; are recovered in the price.
IMMUNIZED PORTFOLIO is a portfolio structured such that the duration equals the duration of the investor's liabilities. The assets in the portfolio are structured to match the volatility of the investor's liabilities, thereby significantly reducing exposure to interest rate risk.
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