DIRECT ATTRIBUTION is the most precise method of costing an output. It seeks to capture accurately the volume and cost of resources used by particular activities. This can be expensive unless the information is already available because it requires detailed measurement of actual costs. Such direct measurement is seldom justifiable solely to improve the accuracy of a cost system, but many institutions use this method to obtain efficiency gains and cost savings.
ECONOMIC BOOK VALUE (EBV) allows for a book value analysis that adjusts the assets to their market value. This valuation allows valuation of goodwill, real estate, inventories and other assets at their market value.
UNUSUAL EXPENSES/(INCOME) is the sum of: Restructuring Charge, Litigation, Impairment of assets held for use or sale, portion of Purchased R&D written off, and Other Unusual Expense (Income).
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