DISCRETIONARY BUDGETING Definition

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DISCRETIONARY BUDGETING see DISCRETIONARY SPENDING.

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EARNINGS PER SHARE (EPS) is either: a. Basic EPS is earnings before extraordinary gains and losses, less preferred-share dividends, divided by all common shares outstanding at the most recent fiscal year end. Net income, or earnings, refers to the companys after-tax profits before extraordinary gains or extraordinary losses for the most recent annual period; or, b. Diluted EPS is where the number of shares used in the calculation is increased to account for outstanding dilution such as options, warrants, in-the-money convertibles, etc. EPS, within a firm that has a sustainable competitive advantage, Should show a minimum of 5-years of their EPS trending strongly upward with consistency and without being erratic.

PARALLEL SIMULATION TESTING is the simultaneous performance of multiple operations. It provides evidence of the validity of processing if the second processing system yields the same results as the first.  Auditors use their own generalized audit software to process the same data as was processed by the client’s software.  If the output of the audit software is the same as the output of the client’s software that is evidence that the client’s software is performing properly.

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