DISCRETIONARY means it is not mandatory, it is up to the individual or company.
DIRECT LABOR RATE VARIANCE reveals the difference between the standard rate and actual rate for the actual labor hours worked [(standard rate - actual rate) X actual hours].
REAL ACCOUNTS, also called permanent accounts, are the accounts; asset, liability, reserve and capital; whose balances are not canceled out at the end of an accounting period, but are carried over to the next period. These accounts appear on the post-closing trial balance and the statement of condition (balance sheet).
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