DIVIDEND CAPITALIZATION: Since most closely held companies do not pay dividends, when using dividend capitalization valuators must first determine dividend paying capacity of a business. Dividend paying capacity based on average net income and on average cash flow are used. To determine dividend paying capacity, near term capital needs, expansion plans, debt repayment, operation cushion, contractual requirements, past dividend paying history of a business and dividends of a comparable company should be investigated. After analyzing these factors, percent of average net income and of average cash flow that can be used for the payment of dividends can be estimated. What also must be determined is the dividend yield, which can best be determined by analyzing comparable companies. As with the price earnings ratio method, this usually produces a subjective result.
CLEARING is the process of reporting a trade to ACT for comparison of the details of the transaction between brokers prior to final settlement; the final exchange of securities for cash on delivery. Clearing operations, such as the National Securities Clearing Corporation (NSCC), facilitate the validation, delivery, and settlement of securities transactions. Trades are either reported by the broker to the clearing corporation directly or through a third party, usually another brokerage firm if a broker does not have a direct relationship with a clearing corporation.
DIRECT JOURNAL PAYMENT is a payment that is recognized that is not included in the Accounts Receivable ledger, e.g. a double payment on a mortgage that has a monthly payment due and payable will cause a split-payment posting: one in the Accounts Receivable ledger for one half of the payment (principal and interest that is invoiced), with the other half of the payment being posted to the Long Term Loan ledger as a direct journal payment.
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