DOUBLE ACCOUNTING is the un-intentional, or sometimes fraudulently intentional, double counting of assets or liabilities, or any other datasets, which, in the end, give an inaccurate view of what the data really means. In accounting, this is usually caused by a multiplicity of entries of the same data which, in the end, causes confusion or financial reporting inaccuracies.

LINEAR PROGRAMMING (LP), in accounting, is the mathematical approach to optimally allocating limited resources among competing activities. It is a technique used to maximize revenue, contribution margin, and profit function; or, to minimize a cost function, subject to constraints. Linear programming consists of two ingredients: (1) objective function and (2) constraints, both of which are linear. In formulating the LP problem, the first step is to define the decision variables that one is trying to solve. The next step is to formulate the objective function and constraints in terms of these decision variables.

ENTERPRISE RISK MANAGEMENT (ERM) identifies risks and opportunities, assesses them for likelihood and magnitude, determines responses strategy, and monitors progress. ERM integrates strategic planning, operations management, and internal control. Monitoring ERM is part of internal control activities.

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