DOUBTFUL DEBT is a debt where circumstances have rendered its ultimate recovery uncertain. Conservatism requires that doubtful debts should be treated in the same way as bad debts. They should thus be recorded as an expense in the profit and loss account and to be credited to a provision to set off against ultimate default if it occurs.
RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT (R&D) is research as a planned activity aimed at discovery of new knowledge with the hope of developing new or improved products and services. Development is the translation of the research findings into a plan or design of new or improved products and services.
PAID IN SURPLUS see PAID-IN-CAPITAL.
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