DUALITY CONCEPT is the foundation of the universally applicable double entry book keeping system. It stems from the fact that every transaction has a double (or dual) effect on the position of a business as recorded in the accounts. For example, when an asset is bought, another asset cash (or bank) is also and simultaneously decreased OR a liability such as creditors is also and simultaneously increased. Similarly, when a sale is made the asset of stock is reduced as goods leave the business and the asset of cash is increased (or the asset of debtors is increased) as cash comes into the business (or a promise to pay is made and accepted). Every financial transaction behaves in this dual way.
CAPS, FLOORS AND COLLARS: CAP is a series of European interest rate call options used to protect against rate moves above a set strike level; FLOOR a series of European interest rate put options used to protect against rate moves below a set strike level; and, COLLAR is the simultaneous purchase of an interest rate cap and sale of an interest rate floor on the same index for the same maturity and notional principal amount.
PURCHASE MONEY AGREEMENT is an agreement under which a person pledges the property or item bought as security.
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