DURATION, in securities, is a measure in years of interest rate risk for a specific security or portfolio. Duration is the weighted average time to receive the present value of cash flows from a specific security or portfolio. When the duration is divided by the discount rate plus one, the resulting modified duration measures the sensitivity of a bond to changes in interest rates. Used by bond managers instead of maturity as it accounts for all principal and interest cash flows in addition to the final maturity payment. For example, the duration of a 10-year zero-coupon bond equals its maturity of 10, while the duration of a 10-year 7.5% coupon bond is less than seven years.

LABOR THROUGHPUT VARIANCE reveals potential constraints on throughput caused by changes in the mix of products being produced. It is computed the way the traditional labor "efficiency" variance is computed but aggregated at a fairly high level (e.g., total plant or total department) and expressed as percent of actual clocked production hours vs. standard production hours.

MARGINAL REVENUE is the change in total revenue as a result of producing one additional unit of output.

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