DURATION, in securities, is a measure in years of interest rate risk for a specific security or portfolio. Duration is the weighted average time to receive the present value of cash flows from a specific security or portfolio. When the duration is divided by the discount rate plus one, the resulting modified duration measures the sensitivity of a bond to changes in interest rates. Used by bond managers instead of maturity as it accounts for all principal and interest cash flows in addition to the final maturity payment. For example, the duration of a 10-year zero-coupon bond equals its maturity of 10, while the duration of a 10-year 7.5% coupon bond is less than seven years.

REVERSE COST-BENEFIT METHOD is based on the short-cut rate of return formula and amounts to asking the question: given the cost of the investment, what level of annual benefits would produce a given rate of return (8 percent, for instance) on the investment?

ENTERPRISE RISK MANAGEMENT (ERM) identifies risks and opportunities, assesses them for likelihood and magnitude, determines responses strategy, and monitors progress. ERM integrates strategic planning, operations management, and internal control. Monitoring ERM is part of internal control activities.

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