EARNINGS FROM OPERATIONS (EFO) represent earnings before other operating items less (i) depreciation and amortization plus (ii) other income less (iii) other expense.
PIASTRE is a currency of Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Egypt, and Sudan.
RISK ADJUSTED RETURN is when we subtract from the rate of return on an asset a rate of return from another asset that has similar risk. This gives an abnormal rate of return that shows how the asset performed over and above a benchmark asset with the same risk. We can also use the beta against the benchmark to calculate an alpha which is also risk adjusted performance.
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