EARNINGS MANAGEMENT occurs when managers use judgment in financial reporting and in structuring transactions to alter financial reports to either mislead some stakeholders about the underlying economic performance of the company, or to influence contractual outcomes that depend on reported accounting numbers.
TOR; among many others; can mean Time of Receipt, Terms Of Reference, Time of Report, etc.
BATCH COSTING is the identification and assignment of those costs incurred in completing the manufacture of a specified batch of components. Having arrived at the batch cost, the unit cost is simply derived by dividing it by the number of components in the batch.
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