EARNINGS MANAGEMENT occurs when managers use judgment in financial reporting and in structuring transactions to alter financial reports to either mislead some stakeholders about the underlying economic performance of the company, or to influence contractual outcomes that depend on reported accounting numbers.
RESTATEMENT OF FINANCIALS are sometimes required by the IRS when the IRS, through audit, determines that IRS rules were not followed; either lawfully or fraudulently. Such restatements usually have a negative effect on the financial results of the audited entity for the periods in question.
MISCELLANEOUS is a grouping consisting of a haphazard assortment of different kinds.
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