ECONOMIC ENTITY accounting concept that provides context or 'point of view' for the economic events (i.e., transactions) captured by the financial statements. In short, it answers the questions, 'Whose asset is it?'; 'Whose liability is it?'
CONTRIBUTED SURPLUS is money a company receives by selling shares above par value or their stated value, or from government donation of land to the company, etc. Contributed Surplus is a balance sheet item that is part of the shareholders' equity.
FINANCIAL RISK is the possibility of whether a bond issuer will default, by failing to repay principal and/or interest in a timely manner. Usually bonds issued by the federal government, for the most part, are immune from default (if the government needs money... more is printed). Bonds issued by corporations are more probable to be defaulted on, since companies often go bankrupt. Municipalities occasionally default as well, but it is much less common. Can also be called default risk or credit risk.
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