ECONOMIES OF SCALE is based upon the theory that the more you produce of a good, the less that it costs for each additional unit, i.e., efficiency. Specifically, it is the reduction of the costs of production of goods due to increasing the size of the producing entity and the share of the total market for the good/product.
GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP) is the value of all the goods and services produced by workers and capital located within a country (or region), such as the United States, regardless of nationality of workers or ownership. Domestic measures relate to the physical location of the factors of production; they refer to production attributable to all labor and property located in a country. The national measures differ from the domestic measures by the net inflow -- that is, inflow less outflow -- of labor and property incomes from abroad. Gross Domestic Product includes production within national borders regardless of whether the labor and property inputs are domestically or foreign owned.
FILENAME EXTENSION is a suffix to the name of a computer file applied to indicate the encoding convention (file format) of its contents, e.g. example.xls, to where the .xls indicates a Microsoft Excel file.
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