ENTITY THEORY is where a legal entity is regarded as having a separate existence from the owners. The financial statements are prepared from the perspective of the entity, not its owners. See PROPRIETARY THEORY.
CONTANGO is the commission paid by a buyer for the postponement of a transaction on a stock exchange when prices for future delivery are higher than those for cash or spot transactions. The opposite is backwardation.
NET PRESENT VALUE (NPV) is a method used in evaluating investments, whereby the net present value of all cash outflows (such as the cost of the investment) and cash inflows (returns) is calculated using a given discount rate, usually REQUIRED RATE OF RETURN. An investment is acceptable if the NPV is positive. In capital budgeting, the discount rate used is called the HURDLE RATE and is usually equal to the INCREMENTAL COST OF CAPITAL.
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