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EQUITY MULTIPLIER (EM) shows the amount of assets owned by the firm for each equivalent monetary unit owner claims held by stockholders, i.e., the equity multiplier measures how many dollars of assets an institution supports with each dollar of capital. If a firm is totally financed by equity, the equity multiplier will equal 1.00, while the larger the number the more highly leveraged is the firm. EM compares assets with equity: large values indicate a large amount of debt financing relative to equity. EM, thus, measures financial leverage and represents both profit and risk measurement. EM affects a firm's profit because it has a multiplier impact on Return on Assets (ROA) to determine the firm's Return on Equity (ROE). EM is also a risk measure because it reflects how many assets can go into default before a company becomes insolvent. The EM ratio is best compared to industry averages. Formula: Total Assets / Net Worth

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LONG-TERM is a long period of time. In securities, for a bond it is 10 or more years or as it relates to a buy and hold investment strategy. In accounting, it is thought of as being in excess of 12 months, e.g. long-term liabilities. See SHORT-TERM.

INITIATIVE is a key action program developed to achieve objectives or close gap between measures performance and targets. Initiatives are often known as projects, actions, or activities. They differ from objectives in that they are more specific, have stated boundaries (beginning and end), have a person/team assigned to accomplish them, and have a budget. Several initiatives taken together may support a specific objective or theme. It is important for an organization to define the boundaries for Initiatives, such as “all strategic projects over $500k in size”. It is also important that Initiatives be strategic in nature, and not “operations as usual” projects, such as “Recruit a new Sales Rep." Example: “Develop Quality Management Program”, “Install ERP System”, “Revamp Supply Chain Process”, “Develop Competencies Model."

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