EXCHANGE RATE EFFECTS is the effect on any given currency as the rate of exchange changes providing either a gain or loss in value against other currencies.
FUNCTIONAL CURRENCY, generally, is the currency of record for any given entity. Within the context of foreign currency, it is the currency which a foreign subsidiary handles on a day-to-day basis in generating net cash flows. It is normally the currency of the country in which the subsidiary operates, but may be the currency of the parent company.
FINANCIAL ENGINEERING is a process involving the creation and combination of a variety of financial instruments in order achieve a defined financial objective within certain cost, tax and legal constraints, e.g. combining or dividing existing financial products to create new financial products.
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