EXPECTATION GAP, in accounting, is the gap between an auditors actual standard of performance and the more rigorous public expectation of what an auditors performance should be. The users of financial statements should be allowed to expect that the auditors materiality levels correspond with their own. If this is not the case an expectation gap will arise. Especially if the financial statements contain non-corrected known errors or omissions classified as immaterial by the auditor, but classified as material by the users. The unknown material errors and omissions are still a part of the audit risk.
COMPETITIVE PRICING generally is where firms must be able to offer the best price in the market and meet price erosion without compromising quality. This is normally met whenever a firm finds acceptable a prices-production combination such that: a. At these prices, there is no other production plan yielding higher profits and using fewer capital goods; namely, firms behave as constrained profit maximizers at given prices; and, b. There is no price vector satisfying "a." with higher prices for capital goods. In other words, the prices of capital goods are maximal within those satisfying constrained profit maximization
PRICE TO BOOK is a financial ratio that is derived by dividing a stock's capitalization by its book value. Also called Market-to-Book.
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