FAIR VALUE, under GAAP, is the amount at which an asset could be bought or sold in a current transaction between willing parties, other than in liquidation. On the other side of the balance sheet, the fair value of a liability is the amount at which that liability could be incurred or settled in a current transaction between willing parties, other than in liquidation.
BANKER'S ACCEPTANCE (BA) is a money market instrument that is issued in discounted form. A banker's acceptance is created when a bank accepts responsibility for payment of business debt by signing a letter of credit. Banker's acceptances are sold to acceptance dealers and may be resold to numerous other parties before the loan is repaid. The investor who last owns the acceptance when the debt becomes due has a right to collect from the borrower. Should the borrower default, the investor can also pursue payment from the accepting bank.
BIG BATH is a business strategy in which a company manipulates its income statement to make poor results look even worse. Strategy being that the following year will show significant improvement. Big bath is sometimes employed by new CEOs to make their first years results more impressive by employing big bath accounting to prior year results.
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