FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Definition

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FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (The Fed) is the central bank of the United States created by Congress, consisting of a seven-member Board of Governors in Washington, D.C., 12 regional Federal Reserve Banks and depository institutions that are subject to reserve requirements. All national banks are members; state-chartered banks may elect to become members and state members are supervised by the Board of Governors and the Reserve Banks. Reserve requirements established by the Fed apply to nonmember depository institutions as well as member banks. Both classes of institutions share equal access to Federal Reserve discount borrowing privileges and Federal Reserve services.

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BOOK ENTRY TRANSACTION, in securities, is a transaction that does not entail physical transfer of paper securities. An entry is made on the books of a safekeeping depository showing the beneficial owner of the securities. This has become a standard transaction method for all U.S. Treasury, many U.S. Government agency securities and many tax­able and tax-exempt instruments.

GOING LONG is the purchase of commodities, bonds, or stock with no immediate intention of selling them, i.e. the purchase is for long term investment or speculation. See GOING SHORT.

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