FIELD TRIAL is a test of the performance of a new product under the conditions under which it is intended be used.
BATCH COSTING is the identification and assignment of those costs incurred in completing the manufacture of a specified batch of components. Having arrived at the batch cost, the unit cost is simply derived by dividing it by the number of components in the batch.
INCOME SMOOTHING refers to measures taken to reduce the probability of income shocks before they occur, and includes strategies like diversifying income sources; making low-risk production and employment choices; building up physical, human, and social assets; and ensuring good financial management.
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