FIFO (first-in, first-out) is an inventory cost flow whereby the first goods purchased are assumed to be the first goods sold so that the ending inventory consists of the most recently purchased goods.
P/E RATIO (PRICE/EARNINGS RATIO) is a stock analysis statistic in which the current price of a stock (todays last sale price) is divided by the reported actual (or sometimes projected, which would be forecast) earnings per share of the issuing firm; it is also called the "multiple".
DISCOUNTED EARNINGS determines the value of a business based upon the present value of projected future earnings, discounted by the required rate of return (capitalization rate). Usually, the question is how well earnings are projected.
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