FINANCIAL ENGINEERING is a process involving the creation and combination of a variety of financial instruments in order achieve a defined financial objective within certain cost, tax and legal constraints, e.g. combining or dividing existing financial products to create new financial products.
CURRENCY MEASUREMENT is part of determining the "functional currency" that mainly influences sales prices for goods / services. It will often be the currency in which denominated and settled: a. of country whose competitive forces and regulations mainly determine sales prices for goods / services; b. that mainly influences labor, material and other costs of providing goods / services; or, as stated, c. will often be the currency in which transactions are denominated and settled.
EXTERNAL AUDITOR is an auditor, usually working for an audit firm, that is completely independent of the company it is auditing. External auditors should always be certified by a professional association of accountants, and should be selected by, and report to, the corporation's board of directors.
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