FINANCIAL INSTITUTION CONFIRMATION REQUEST Definition

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FINANCIAL INSTITUTION CONFIRMATION REQUEST is a confirmation sent to the client's bank or other financial institution asking the bank to confirm directly to the auditor information about balances at a particular date.

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CASH AGAINST DOCUMENTS (CAD) is a transaction where the buyer assumes ownership/title for the goods being purchased upon paying the agreed upon sale price in cash.

INTEREST RATE RISK results from increases and decreases in bond prices caused by changes in interest rates. When interest rates rise, the prices of bonds fall to compensate for the higher level of income demanded by investors. Bonds that carry less than the new market rate of interest must sell for lower prices. For example, if an investor purchases a bond at par value ($1,000) with a 7% coupon and interest rates rise to the point where the same bond later yields 9%, the bond will decline in price to the point where its yield to maturity is equivalent to the yield to maturity on a 9% current coupon. In other words, the investor will earn the prevail­ing market rate of 9%- by buying a bond priced at par with the 9% coupon, or by buying the bond at a discount to par with a 7% coupon.

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