FLEXIBLE BUDGET is based upon different levels of activity. It is a very useful tool for comparing actual costs experienced to the cost allowable for the activity level achieved, i.e. it is dynamic in nature as compared to static. A series of budgets can be readily developed to fit any activity level. Flexible budgeting distinguishes between fixed and variable cost, thereby allowing for a budget that can be automatically adjusted to the level of activity actually attained.
IRCA is International Register of Certified Auditors.
INCURRED BUT NOT REPORTED (IBNR), in insurance, losses occurring over a specified period that have not been reported to the insurer. IBNR losses are often calculated as a percentage of claims paid and claims outstanding and are reported in an insurers annual report. Reinsurers establish IBNR reserves as a part of their rating plans under a facultative reinsurance treaty, lest an overly optimistic view of treaty results lead to further under-rating on a book of business. Example: Product liability losses are seldom reported during a policy year. This "tail" of claims will upset any rating plan, unless an IBNR reserve is established and factored into the profit picture.
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