FRESH START ACCOUNTING Definition

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FRESH START ACCOUNTING, upon emergence from bankruptcy, the consolidated financial statements of the "Successor Company" apply the provisions of fresh start accounting in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). Under fresh start accounting, a new reporting entity, the 'Successor Company', is deemed to be created, and the recorded amounts of assets and liabilities are adjusted to reflect their fair value. As a result, the reported historical financial statements of the 'Predecessor Company' generally are not comparable to those of the "Successor Company".

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MARKET MAKERS is one of the major differences between The NASDAQ Stock Market and other major markets in the U.S. is NASDAQ's structure of competing Market Makers. Market Makers are NASDAQ member firms that use their own capital, research, retail and/or systems resources to represent a stock and compete with each other to buy and sell the stocks they represent. Each Market Maker competes for customer order flow by displaying buy and sell quotations for a guaranteed number of shares. Once an order is received, the Market Maker will immediately purchase for or sell from its own inventory, or seek the other side of the trade until it is executed, often in a matter of seconds.

STEPPED COSTS is a cost that increases by a reasonably constant sum each time volume or activity increases by a predictable, constant, multiple. The smallest step costs are variable costs, which increase by a discrete amount each time output or activity increases by one unit. Larger steps will consist of what are, effectively, fixed costs over a particular range of output. Some costs increase, or decrease, in significant steps when output or activity passes certain limits. For instance, if a bus company regularly has more passengers on a route than can be carried by a single vehicle it may be necessary to use an additional bus. Running an additional bus will double the cost of operating on that route. Similarly, a manufacturing firm may have a policy of employing one supervisor for every ten production workers. In which case the firm will need one supervisor for 1-10 employees, two supervisors for 11-20 employees, and so on. So, if demand rises to the point where 21 production employees are required an extra supervisor must be employed. Costs that behave in this way are called stepped costs.

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