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FUNCTIONAL-BASED ACCOUNTING focuses on organizational units such as departments and plants, uses financial outcome measures and static standards and benchmarks to evaluate performance, and emphasizes status quo and organizational stability. On the other hand, activity-based accounting focuses on processes, uses both operational and financial measures and dynamic standards, and emphasizes and supports continuous improvement. Activity-based accounting adds a process perspective.

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PAR VALUE is a. the maturity value or face value, i.e., the amount that an issuer agrees to pay at the maturity date; b. the official exchange rate between two countries currencies; or, c. the value of a security that is set by the company issuing it; unrelated to market value.

UNREALIZED ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE, in cash based accounting, is monies due but not received; can be used to offset taxes.

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