FUNCTIONAL-BASED ACCOUNTING focuses on organizational units such as departments and plants, uses financial outcome measures and static standards and benchmarks to evaluate performance, and emphasizes status quo and organizational stability. On the other hand, activity-based accounting focuses on processes, uses both operational and financial measures and dynamic standards, and emphasizes and supports continuous improvement. Activity-based accounting adds a process perspective.
PREPAYMENT RISK, in the area of mortgage-backed securities, which are backed by loans on property, is the possibility that home owners will payoff their mortgages early, returning the investor's principal earlier than expected. This typically occurs during a declining interest rate environment, when home owners can refinance at lower rates, leaving investors vulnerable to the risk of reinvestment at lower rates.
V as the fifth letter of a Nasdaq stock symbol indicates that it is when-issued or when-distributed.
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