GOING LONG is the purchase of commodities, bonds, or stock with no immediate intention of selling them, i.e. the purchase is for long term investment or speculation. See GOING SHORT.
ENCRYPTION is the scrambling of data so that it is meaningless to anyone but the intended recipient, who has the key to unscramble the data to its original form.
NET PROFIT MARGIN (NPM Pre-Tax) incorporates all of the expenses associated with ordinary business (excluding taxes) thus is a measure of the overall operating efficiency of the firm prior to any tax considerations which may mask performance. For a business to be viable in the long term profits must be generated; making the net profit margin ratio one of the key performance indicators for any business. It is important to analyze the ratio over time. A variation in the ratio from year-to-year may be due to abnormal conditions or expenses which need to be addressed. A decline in the ratio over time may indicate a margin squeeze suggesting that productivity improvements may need to be initiated. In some cases, the costs of such improvements may lead to a further drop in the ratio or even losses before increased profitability is achieved. Formula: Net Earnings / Net Revenue
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