GOLDEN RULES OF ACCOUNTING are: 1. Debits ALWAYS EQUAL Credits; 2. Increases DO NOT NECESSARILY EQUAL Decreases; and, 3. Assets - Liabilities = Owners Equity (The Accounting Equation).
BOOK VALUE is an accounting term which usually refers to a business historical cost of assets less liabilities. The book value of a stock is determined from a companys records by adding all assets (generally excluding such intangibles as goodwill), then deducting all debts and other liabilities, plus the liquidation price of any preferred stock issued. The sum arrived at is divided by the number of common shares outstanding and the result is the book value per common share. Book value of the assets of a company may have little or no significant relationship to market value.
Tangible Book Value is different than Book Value in that it deducts from asset value intangible assets, which are assets that are not hard (e.g., goodwill, patents, capitalized start-up expenses and deferred financing costs).
Economic Book Value allows for a Book Value analysis that adjusts the assets to their market value. This valuation allows valuation of goodwill, real estate, inventories and other assets at their market value.
FUND ACCOUNTING is a method of accounting and presentation whereby assets and liabilities are grouped according to the purpose for which they are to be used. Generally used by government entities and not-for-profits.
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