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GROSS PROFIT MARGIN ON SALES (GPM) is one of the key performance indicators. The gross profit margin gives an indication on whether the average markup on goods and services is sufficient to cover expenses and make a profit. GPM shows the relationship between sales and the direct cost of products/services sold. It measures the ability of both to control costs and to pass along price increases through sales to customers. The gross profit margin should be stable over time. A persistent gradual decrease is likely to indicate that productivity needs to be increased to return profitability back to previous levels. Generally:

>40% = Indicates a sustainable competitive advantage

< 40% = Indicates competition may be eroding margins

< 20% = There is likely no sustainable competitive advantage

Formula: Gross Profit / Net Revenue

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COMMODITY is an article of commerce or product that can be used for commerce. In a narrower sense, commodity is product traded on an authorized commodity exchange. Some types of commodities: agricultural products, metals, petroleum, foreign currencies, financial instruments and indices, etc.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF INTEREST is the market rate at time of a debt issue.

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