GUARANTEE DEPOSIT see SELLER GUARANTEE DEPOSIT.
CONSUMPTION SMOOTHING is aimed at protecting consumption patterns from the impact of shocks, and can take effect either before or after their occurrence. Post-shock responses include modifying consumption, raising income by mobilizing labor or selling assets, drawing on informal or formal sources of savings, or activating claims on informal insurance mechanisms.
EXPROPRIATION is the taking of property or rights by governmental authority such as eminent domain, possibly including an emergency situation, such as taking a persons truck or bulldozer to build a levee during a flood. In such a case just compensation eventually must be paid to the owner, who can make a claim against the taker.
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