HIGH YIELD (JUNK) is bonds and preferred stocks having an S&P/Moody's rating of BB+/Ba1 or lower, and NAIC ratings of"3", "4", "5", or "6". Below investment grade securities have greater risk and therefore compensate investors with higher market yields. In addition to new issues, high yield securities can evolve from older issues with declining ratings, or can be created through leveraged buyouts where management uses the assets of the company as collateral for the issue.
SECURITY dependent upon usage is: a. a guarantee that an obligation will be met; b. defense against financial failure; financial independence; c. property that your creditor can claim in case you default on your obligation; or, d. a formal declaration that documents a fact of relevance to finance and investment; the holder of which has a right to receive interest or dividends, e.g. stocks and bonds.
CONSERVATISM PRINCIPLE provides that accounting for a business should be fair and reasonable. Accountants are required in their work to make evaluations and estimates, to deliver opinions, and to select procedures. They should do so in a way that neither overstates nor understates the affairs of the business or the results of operation.
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