HIGH YIELD (JUNK) is bonds and preferred stocks having an S&P/Moody's rating of BB+/Ba1 or lower, and NAIC ratings of"3", "4", "5", or "6". Below investment grade securities have greater risk and therefore compensate investors with higher market yields. In addition to new issues, high yield securities can evolve from older issues with declining ratings, or can be created through leveraged buyouts where management uses the assets of the company as collateral for the issue.
OBLIGATION BOND is a bond signed by a mortgagor (borrower) for an amount greater than the loan amount. Such a bond creates a personal obligation on the part of the borrower and assures the lender of recourse in case of nonpayment of property taxes and insurance or past due interest on the mortgage.
BEST PRACTICES are the generally understood operational characteristics of corporations which have been successful in terms of high repayment rates, significant outreach, and progress towards surplus generation.
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