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HORIZONTAL COMBINATION is a business combination of companies with similar functions in the production or sale of comparable products.

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INCURRED BUT NOT REPORTED (IBNR), in insurance, losses occurring over a specified period that have not been reported to the insurer. IBNR losses are often calculated as a percentage of claims paid and claims outstanding and are reported in an insurers annual report. Reinsurers establish IBNR reserves as a part of their rating plans under a facultative reinsurance treaty, lest an overly optimistic view of treaty results lead to further under-rating on a book of business. Example: Product liability losses are seldom reported during a policy year. This "tail" of claims will upset any rating plan, unless an IBNR reserve is established and factored into the profit picture.

STANDARD DEVIATION is a statistic used to measure dispersion equal to the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squares of the deviations from the arithmetic mean.

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