IDLE TIME is unproductive time caused by, e.g., machine breakdowns, shortages of material or inefficient scheduling. The cost of idle time is usually classified as an indirect rather than a direct cost.
JOINT STOCK COMPANY is a company that has some features of a corporation and some features of a partnership. This type of company has access to the liquidity and financial reserves of stock markets as a corporation, however, as in a partnership; the stockholders are liable for company debts and have additional restrictions of a partnership.
COST is the amount of money that must be paid to take ownership of something; expense or purchase price.
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