IDLE TIME is unproductive time caused by, e.g., machine breakdowns, shortages of material or inefficient scheduling. The cost of idle time is usually classified as an indirect rather than a direct cost.

RUNNING TOTAL is the sum of any given set of numbers that is incremented/decremented as additional numbers become available over time. For example, a retail store makes sales throughout a time period; the running total is the sum of their sales, including returns/credits, at any given point of time during that time period: day, week, month, quarter, and year.

BENFORD'S LAW is a mathematical law that applies to any population of numbers derived from other numbers (such as the dollar amount of a sale, found by multiplying the quantity sold times the unit price). It holds that 30% of the time the first non-zero digit of this derived number will be one, and it will be a nine only 4.6% of the time. Benford's law is used by auditors to identify fictitious populations of numbers.

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